Pande, Rohini, Lori Beaman, Esther Duflo, and Petia Topalova. 2010. “Political Reservation And Substantive Representation: Evidence From Indian Village Councils”. In . Washington D.C. and New Delhi: Brookings Institution Press and The National Council of Applied Econ, 7, 2010 edition.
Female presence in India’s state and national legislatures hovers at ten percent. Concerns that this limits the political voice available to women has led to the introduction and subsequent passage of a Reservation Bill in the Upper house of the Indian Parliament. The bill seeks to reserve 33% of India’s state and national legislature positions for women. If implemented 181 out of the 543 National legislators and 1,370 out of the 4,109 State legislators will be women.