Khwaja, Asim, Tahir Andrabi, and Jishnu Das. 2011. ““The Madrassa Controversy: The Story Does Not Fit The Facts.” Under The Drones: Modern Lives In Afghanistan-Pakistan Borderlands. Eds. Shahzad Bashir And Robert Crews. Harvard University Press, June 2011”. In .
Over the last few years, US and international foreign policy concerns have focused on the rise of extremism in the Islamic world. Pakistan, considered as pivotal in the war on terror, is mentioned as prominent case. There is by now a widespread conventional narrative surrounding the role of the Pakistani educational system in the rise of religious extremism in the country. The general claim is that the public schooling system in Pakistan is failing especially for the poor. As a result, large numbers are exiting the state system both through attrition or lack of enrollment in the first place. Madrassas have proliferated to fill the vacuum as a result of the Pakistani state and society to provide mainstream schooling opportunities for its children, especially for the poorest segments of the population. This narrative has been presented in the international media and also in policy circles in the United States in many policy studies. The Af-Pak policy framework developed under the Obama administration has also highlighted this point.