Khwaja, Asim, Tahir Andrabi, Jishnu Das, Tara Vishwanath, and Tristan Zajonc. 2007. “Learning And Educational Achievements In Punjab Schools (Leaps): Insights To Inform The Education Policy Debate”.
There have been dramatic changes in the educational landscape of Pakistan in the new millennium. Enrollments are starting to look up with a one percentage point jump in net enrollments between 2001 and 2005. In addition, secular, co-educational and for-profit private schools have become a widespread presence in both urban and rural areas. Between 2000 and 2005, the number of private schools increased from 32,000 to 47,000 and by the end of 2005, one in every three enrolled children at the primary level was studying in a private school.